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Title Dietary 5-aminolevulinic acid enhances adenosine triphosphate production, ecdysis and immune response in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone)
Posted by Ivane Gerasmio
Authors Pedrosa-Gerasmio, Ivane R; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo
Publication date 2019/02/01
Journal Aquaculture Research
Volume 50
Issue 4
Pages Pages 1131-1141
Publisher Wiley
Abstract Previous studies have shown that 5‐aminolevulinic acid (5‐ALA ), a precursor of haem, can enhance haem synthesis and the activity of haemoproteins. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary 5‐ALA on Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). Dietary groups included basal diet (BD, control) and BD plus 15, 30 and 60 ppm 5‐ALA (ALA 15, ALA 30 and ALA 60 respectively). Hepatopancreas adenosine triphosphate (ATP ) levels increased with increasing 5‐ALA concentration (ALA 60 p < 0.05) after 2 weeks of feeding. 5‐aminolevulinic acid diets significantly increased the expression of ecdysis‐related genes: nuclear receptor E75 and chitinase 4 (ALA 15, ALA 30, ALA 60), cytochrome P450 Shade (ALA 60), chitinase 1 (ALA 60) and chitinase 3 (ALA 15, ALA 60). Catalase (CAT ) and prophenoloxidase gene expression levels were also significantly higher in ALA 60 after 12 weeks of feeding. Six hours after L. vannamei were exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus , total haemocyte count (ALA 60) and gene expression levels of CAT (ALA 30, ALA 60) were significantly higher in 5‐ALA groups compared to the control. 5‐aminolevulinic acid diets also increased survival of L. vannamei following V. parahaemolyticus immersion challenge. These results suggest that supplementing L. vannamei diets with 5‐ALA can enhance ATP production, immune response against V. parahaemolyticus , total haemocyte count and expression of some immune‐related genes. 5‐aminolevulinic acid can also induce ecdysis‐related gene expressions, without adversely affecting growth.
Index terms / Keywords 5‐aminolevulinic acid, ATP level, ecdysis, immune response, Pacific white shrimp