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Title Factors of century-old conflict and current violent extremism in the South
Posted by Primitivo Iii Ragandang
Authors Ragandang, Primitivo III C.
Publication date 2018/01
Journal Conflict Studies Quarterly
Issue 22
Publisher Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Abstract The perpetual struggle for separatism among Moros in Mindanao is produced on a background of historical and cultural injustices and by the presence of Moro liberation fronts, along with the government responses to this issue. This article endeavors to trace and interweave the roots of historical and cultural factors of Muslim separatism in Mindanao, along with its implication to the present Marawi crisis as fueled by the ISIS-linked groups who attacked the Philippines’ Islamic city on May 23, 2017. It looks into the history of the arrival of Islam and the subsequent islamization of Mindanao. It then discusses the Muslim resistance movement against two foreign regimes, Spanish and American, which is followed by its resistance against the Philippine government. Factors that trigger Muslims’ desire for separatism include at least three notorious massacres: Jabidah, Manili, and the Tacub Massacre. Such historical factors of injustices have fuelled the century-old struggle for separatism and self-determination. With the government’s and non-government forces’ failure to pacify the island, such struggle resulted into continuing war in the region killing over 120,000 Mindanaoans. Recently, this conflict in the region was reignited when an ISIS-linked group attacked the Philippines’ Islamic city of Marawi, affecting over 84,000 internally displaced persons from over 18,000 families who are now seeking refuge in 70 different evacuation centers, in a state of discomfort, missing home and psychologically distress.
Index terms / Keywords Marawi, Mindanao, Muslim, Philippines, separatism, violent extremism