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Title Evaluation Schema in the Narratives of Sendong Survivors
Posted by Merceditha Alicando
Authors Alicando, Merceditha C.; Balgoa, Nelia G.
Conference Linguistic Society of the Philippines International Conference 2019
Abstract This paper examines the types of evaluation schema in the oral narratives of personal experience of the Sendong survivors in the barangays of Sta. Filomena, Hinaplanon, and Santiago of Iligan City. Forty informants were asked to narrate orally their Sendong experiences and transcripts of the audio-recorded interviews were made. Using Labov and Waletzky’s six narrative schema model as the main framework of the study, the narrative clauses were coded, highlighting the evaluation schemas of these narratives. Results show that just like Labov and Tannen’s model, the evaluations in the Sendong narratives can be categorized as external evaluation and embedded/internal evaluation, i.e., classification based on structure. Additionally, the study has found out that these evaluation schemas can also be classified based on viewpoint, i.e., on who is giving the assessment. Under this type of classification are individual evaluation, collective evaluation (which could be inclusive or exclusive), outsider’s evaluation, and the “you” evaluation. These findings reveal that the informants, when asked about their own experiences, usually would consider, if not include, other people in their narration that it is reflected even when they make assessments of the situations they were/are into. This is illustrated by the presence of collective evaluation, outsider’s evaluation, and the “you” evaluation. These types of evaluations reflect Hofstede’s collectivistic and Hall’s high-context culture of the Filipinos. Because of the very close-knit families and communities, we do not just focus on the “I” but also even on the “we” concept, the other people belonging to our in-group. And this is depicted in the types of evaluative comments of the Sendong survivors. Finally, this study concludes that Labov and Waletzky’s narrative model is not universal because it cannot capture the culture-specific feature of the evaluation schema found in the Sendong narratives.
Index terms / Keywords narratives, narratives of personal experience, evaluation schema, Labov's narrative model